The Ecology of Violent Extremism brings together leading theorists and practitioners to describe an ecological or systems approach to violent extremism. Nothing can be fixed until it is understood. News media keep us alarmed to the close--‐up devastation of acts of terrorism.
This book climbs a ladder to get a better view of the problem. What is beneath and beyond violent extremism? How do we respond to the problem of violent extremism in ways that do not fertilize the root causes that fueled it in the first place? While many books offer one or two hypotheses for preventing terrorism, this book gives readers the tools to look at the problem from many different angles. The book offers a “map of violent extremism” drawing connections between twenty--‐five factors that correlate with violent extremism (VE).
On a spectrum, counterterrorism seeks to disrupt, detain, and destroy terrorist plans and networks. P/CVE seeks to prevent and counter the belief systems that support violent extremism. Peacebuilding addresses the longer--‐term factors and root causes driving VE. An ecological approach to VE recognizes that interventions also interact with each other. For example, some approaches to counterterrorism also motivate further recruitment to VE groups and undermine peacebuilding interventions.
Readers finish the book recognizing the debates within the very definition of violent extremism, and understanding a broader paradigm for how we understand and respond to violent extremist beliefs and acts of terror.
Forward - Kevin Clements, Toda Peace Institute
Preface – Lisa Schirch
How to Use this Book
Section 1: The Ecology of Violent Extremism
1.The Landscape of Terror - Lisa Schirch
2.Mapping Correlations and Theories of Change in the Ecology of Violent Extremism - Lisa Schirch
3.Unintended Impacts and Ecological Metaphors of Violent Extremism - Lisa Schirch
Section 2: Ecological Analysis of Violent Extremism
4.Alt-Right and Jihad – Scott Atran
5.Radical Islamist and Radical Christianist Nuclear Terrorism - Frances Flannery
6.The Private Sector and Violent Extremism - Stone Conroy
7.The Neurobiology of Violent Extremism - Mari Fitzduff
8.Youth and the Security Sector – Mark Hamilton
9.Advancing a Gender Perspective and Women’s Participation in Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism – Rafia Bhulai
10.Climate Change and Violent Extremism – Lisa Schirch
Section 3: The Ecology of Counterterrorism
11.Principles of Effective Counterterrorism – Alistair Millar
12.Overcoming Violent Extremism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring - Sverre Lodgaard
13.Civil Society Engagement to Prevent Violent Extremism - David Cortright
14.Six Principles for Enabling State Responses - Lena Slachmuijlder
15.Legal Restrictions and Counterterrorism – Kay Guinane
16.Proscribing Peace: The Impact of Terrorist Listing on Peacebuilding Organizations – Teresa Dumasy and Sophie Haspeslagh
Section 4: The Ecology of Preventing/Countering Violent Extremism (P/CVE)
17.The Evolution of CVE Policy - Elizabeth Hume and Laura Strawmyer
18.Countering Violent Extremism Framework – Humera Khan and Adnan Ansari
19.CVE in the United States: Unscientific and Stigmatizing National Security Theater - Arjun S. Sethi
20.Islamisation, Securitization and Peacebuilding Responses to P/CVE - Mohammed Abu-Nimer
21.CVE, DDR, Social Capital, and the Women, Peace & Security Agenda– Dean Piedmont and Gabrielle Belli
Section 5: The Ecology of Peacebuilding
22.Addressing Terrorism: A Theory of Change Approach – John Paul Lederach
23.Negotiation and Violent Extremism: Why Engage, and Why Not? – William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure
24.Peacebuilding Principles for Transforming Violent Extremism – Lena Slachmuijlder
25.Peacebuilding Approaches to Working with Young People – by Saji Prelis, Michael Shipler, Rachel Walsh, and Lena Slachmuijlder
26.Peacebuilding Narratives and CVE - Lena Slachmuijlder
27.A Peacebuilding Approach to Media and Conflict Sensitive Journalism – Myriam Aziz and Lisa Schirch
28.To Defeat Terrorism, Use 'People Power' - Maria J. Stephan and Leanne Erdberg
29.Preventing Violence through a Trauma Healing Approach - Veronica Lavet
Section 6: Case Studies
30.The Ecology of Violent Extremism in Kenya - Millicent Otieno
31.P/CVE through Empowering Women Economically and Socially in Pakistan - Mossarat Qadeem
32.The Radical Muslim and the Radical Mennonite: An Interfaith Encounter for Peace in Indonesia – Agnes Chen, Paulus Hartono, and Agus Suyanto
33.What Works to Prevent Violent Extremism: Lessons from Employment and Education Programs – Rebecca Wolfe and Keith Proctor
34.A Child-Focused Perspective on the P/CVE Paradigm - Matthew J.O. Scott
35.Putting Human Dignity at the Center: An Alternative Perspective on “Countering Violent Extremism” - Nell Bolton and Aaron Chassy
36.Toward a Synergy of Approaches to Human Security – Policy Recommendations
An excellent and timely volume examining in great depth the complexities of violent extremism. Its rich insights provide conceptual and practical tools for addressing this issue globally.
This collection of thoughtful and informed perspectives on the issue of violent extremism reminds us that the only viable solutions reside in understanding the broader context in which violent movements thrive. The authors provide insights on key aspects of developing holistic and impactful approaches to the problem, and challenge us to think beyond current policies and strategies.
Lisa Schirch is North American Research Director for the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research, Senior Policy Advisor with the Alliance for Peacebuilding, and Research Professor at the Center for Justice and Peacebuilding at Eastern Mennonite University.