Rowman and Littlefield International

Cities and the European Union

Mechanisms and Modes of Europeanisation

By Samuele Dossi

This volume examines European Union policy instruments affecting the urban domain through the lens of Europeanisation.

Hardback ISBN: 9781785521584 Release date: Feb 2017
£30.00 €41.00 $49.00
Paperback ISBN: 9781786611093 Release date: Oct 2018
£24.95 €36.00 $39.95

Pages: 200

This volume examines European Union policy instruments affecting the urban domain through the lens of Europeanisation. Instead of looking at EU instruments that are formally consecrated to cities, theoretical public policy analysis explores the arenas and causal mechanisms that structure the encounter between the EU and urban governance. The core variables that explain change concern the status of actors' preferences and the payoffs from Europeanisation. Their combination creates a four-dimensional space. We can therefore develop a typology for the modes of Europeanisation that chimes with current theorisations on the EU modes of governance. Dossi considers four modes of Europeanisation, which he analyses to grasp the essence of EU instruments and initiatives. The eventual Europeanisation of urban systems depends on the nature of strategic interaction, not on the legal ‘tools' designated explicitly for cities

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables xiii

List of Abbreviations xv

Acknowledgements xix

Preface xxi

Chapter One – Introduction 1

PART I – Contextualising Europeanisation of Cities 5

Chapter Two – Territorial Governance and Regulation in Europe 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Contextualising governance within urban systems 7

2.3 The ‘urban policy’ of the EU 9

2.4 From government to governance within urban systems? 14

2.5 Concluding remarks 15

Chapter Three – Europeanisation: Concepts and Agendas for Research 17

3.1 Introduction 17

3.2 Europeanisation: definition and the problems of establishing

causality 19

3.3 Europeanisation the urban way 21

3.4 Concluding remarks 23

Chapter Four – Mechanisms and Modes of Europeanisation 27

4.1 Introduction 27

4.2 For a public policy analysis of cities Europeanisation 28

4.3 Policy instruments and the ‘new’ tools of public intervention 30

Policy instruments: definitions and classifications 30

Changing instruments of urban policy 32

Social mechanisms and the value of mechanistic explanation 33

4.4 The approach: policy modes and mechanisms of Europeanisation 36

Modes of ideation 39

Regulatory modes 40

Modes of coordination 41

Modes of distribution 42

4.5 Modes of Europeanisation and policy instruments 44

Chapter Five – Research Design and Methodological Issues 47

5.1 Introduction 47

The relevance of the ‘time factor’ 48

5.2 Methodology and research design 48

Analytic process tracing 50

Design and strategy of research 51

5.3 Actor constellations and game representations 53

5.4 Concluding remarks 55

PART II – Assessing the Encounter Between Cities and the European

Union 57

Chapter Six – Europeanisation via Modes of Ideation: The Covenant of

Mayors Programme for Energy Saving and Renewal 59

6.1 Introduction 59

6.2 Contrasting climate change in the European Union 60

Archetypal game model: is the CoM just cheap talk? 63

6.3 The Covenant of Mayors programme 64

6.4 Exploring the mode: the Covenant of Mayors in Turin 68

Logic of action in Turin 70

Conclusions: insights into the Europeanisation of energy saving

in Turin 71

6.5 Energy efficiency at the forefront of the EU policy action 74

Chapter Seven – Europeanisation via Modes of Regulation: Waste

Management and the Case of the EU Packaging Waste Directive 77

7.1 Introduction 77

7.2 Waste management policy in the EU 79

Principles and structure of waste legislation 81

Archetypal game model 85

7.3 The Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive 87

Instruments for waste management – WFD and waste management

plans 87

Implementing the EU Packaging Waste Directive 89

Objectives and targets of the Packaging Waste Directive 90

7.4 Exploring the mode: waste management in the city of Turin 91

Legislative context and waste management in Italy 92

The situation in Turin: logic of action 95

Conclusions: insights into the Europeanisation of waste

management 97

7.5 New perspectives on waste management in the EU 100

Chapter Eight – Europeanisation via Modes of Coordination: Ambient

Air Quality Control and the Case of EU Directive 1999/30 103

8.1 Introduction 103

8.2 Air quality policy in the EU 104

Principles and structure of air quality legislation 105

Archetypal game model 107

8.3 Implementing Directive 1999/30/EC (and ‘framework directive’

2008/50) 109

8.4 Taking stock of coordination: air quality control in Turin 110

Legislative context and air quality control in Italy 111

Logic of action in the city of Turin 112

Conclusions: insights into the Europeanisation of air quality

control 114

8.5 A renewed EU policy for air quality? 116

Chapter Nine – Europeanisation via Modes of Distribution: Regional

Policy and the Case of the Community Initiative URBAN II 119

9.1 Introduction 119

9.2 Regional policy in the EU: what space for cities? 120

The EU principles of structural action 121

Archetypal game model 124

9.3 CI URBAN II. A catalyst for urban Europeanisation 124

9.4 Exploring modes of distribution: URBAN II in Turin 127

Developing URBAN CI in Italy 129

Logic of action in the city of Turin 131

Conclusions: insights into the Europeanisation of urban regeneration in

Turin 133

9.5 Streamlining urban actions in the new EU Regional policy 135

Chapter Ten – Implications for Theory and Perspectives 137

10.1 Are cities in the EU really Europeanised? 138

10.2 Dissecting mechanisms 141

10.3 The logic of interaction 146

10.4 Using evidence to formulate propositions on Europeanisation 149

10.5 Contribution to the literature and future research 152

10.6 Between new regulatory provisions and a possible EU urban

agenda 155

Bibliography 159

Index 179

Samuele Dossi is Research Officer at the European Parliament Research Service, where he works in the Impact Assessment Unit. Previously he was Evaluation Officer at the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Urban and Regional Policy. Dr Dossi obtained a PhD in European Studies from the University of Exeter under the supervision of Claudio Radaelli. His research interests are the theory and practice of policy evaluation, theoretical analysis of public policy, rational methods of policy appraisal, the Europeanisation of cities, and the debate on Europeanisation mechanisms.

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