Companion website: http://www.foreignpolicy.org.in/home/
Robert D. Kaplan
Introduction: Values and Foreign Policy
Krishnan Srinivasan, James Mayall, Sanjay Pulipaka
1. Values in European Foreign Policy: Defending the Enlightenment in Troubled Times
2. Values and European Foreign Economic Policy: Ideas, Institutions and Interests
3. Values in German Foreign Policy: How Changes of Course Created Lasting Values
Amit Das Gupta
4. Values in US Foreign Policy: ‘America First’ Meets the Pro-Democracy State
William J. Antholis
5. Overview: Reflections on Values in Western Foreign Policy: From the Liberal World Order to Antithetical Values
6. Values in Russian Foreign Policy: Soviet Values, Revisionism and President Putin
Hari Vasudevan and Tatiana Shaumyan
7. Islamic Values in Foreign Policy: Perspectives on ‘Secular’ Turkey and ‘Islamic’ Iran
Mehmet Ozkan and Kingshuk Chatterjee
8. Values in Indian Foreign Policy: Lofty Ideals Give Way to Parochial Pragmatism
9. Values in Myanmar's Foreign Policy: Neutralism, Isolationism and Multi-Engagement
Sanjay Pulipaka and Chaw Chaw Sein
10. Values in Indonesian Foreign Policy: Independent and Active Doctrine
Dewi Fortuna Anwar
11. Values in Chinese Foreign Policy: Culture, Leadership and Diplomacy
12. Values in South Korean Foreign Policy: Search of New Identity as a ‘Middle Power’
13. Values in Japanese Foreign Policy: Between ‘Universal Values’ and the Search for Cultural Pluralism
14. Overview: Reflections on Values in Asian Foreign Policy: ASEAN’s Three Principles
List of Contributors
While reading the excellent chapter in Values in Foreign Policy by William J. Antholis on US foreign policy, key words caught my attention; multilateralism, engagement, democracy, and intervention to protect these values. Antholis writes “while the president is the dominant player in setting US foreign policy, he cannot simply act alone.” This reinforces my faith in democracy and it is America which has to provide leadership.
The movement towards various forms of global convergence, even if fitful, with many areas fractious and contested, is now a reality for the world community. This pioneering book Values in Foreign Policy on the balance between values and the reality of foreign policy compulsions in different parts of the world, is an essential and vital contribution to an understanding of the forces that will shape this evolution, which both the general reader and the expert will find gripping. You absolutely must buy this watershed publication, or at least make sure to read it.
At a time when immediate interests rather than enduring beliefs govern much of interpersonal relations, Values in Foreign Policy: Investigating Ideals and Interests looks at the role of principles in global politics. Carefully unpicking the practices of a host of countries, East and West, the work examines norms in foreign policy discourses and explores the possibility of universal standards in international relations.
While a good foreign policy should be based on a harmonious mix of national values and national interests, those who frame foreign policy usually know about their own value-systems only, often misreading that of a neighbour or of more far-away countries. This has created a number of conflicts and even wars. Today the world has become a global village, but we still do not understand our neighbours and other nations. This book is important for those who believe that we can make the world better by understanding the values of the ‘other’.
Krishnan Srinivasan and his colleagues should be congratulated on this compilation of the different value-systems which lie at the heart of the foreign policies of all countries.
In case of a conflict between pragmatism or national interest, and principles or values, the former invariably trumps the latter. Yet governments will try to convince their peoples that they are guided by principles. This book, edited by Krishnan Srinivasan and others, will help readers understand how some countries genuinely want to abide by principles, but pressure from big powers, especially some permanent members of the UN Security Council, obliges them to deviate from their values. In the real world, there are no principles except hard power, military and economic.
The volume represents a timely and effective intervention to address the crucial issue of the relationship between value systems and the pursuit of foreign policy. Drawing upon case studies from all the main world power centres, the chapters reflect contemporary academic attempts to think beyond the age-old debate on the relative importance of ideology and realpolitik in international politics. The volume should be of interest to both practitioners of foreign policy as well as scholars in international relations.
Values in Foreign Policy: Investigating Ideals and Interests brings together, in a garland of ideas, varied analyses by an impressive collection of foreign policy analysts. Foreign policy is necessarily an amalgam of idealism and realism, and the authors demonstrate how these interact with each other in policy formulation and implementation in the real world. A must-read for anyone with curiosity and interest in inter-state relations in the contemporary global matrix.
One thing is certain: two centuries of Western domination of world history will end soon. Western power will retreat. But will Western values retreat too? And will Eastern values fill the void? Krishnan Srinivasan has produced a timely and insightful volume to guide us as we move into a fascinating new era of human history. A must read for all serious thinkers.
Srinivasan, Mayall and Pulipaka have done great service by unpacking the dynamic tension between values and interests in the conduct of foreign policy by major nations. In doing so, they widen the terrain of a debate that has been traditionally framed in terms of a conflict between liberal internationalist and conservative conceptions of American/Western foreign policy or as a clash between 'Eastern' and 'Western' values. By taking a comparative perspective, the authors demonstrate the universal nature of the contradiction between high-minded ideals a nation proclaims and the pragmatic adaptation to the messy realities that its policy makers confront.
Values in Foreign Policy brilliantly captures the tensions between ideals and interests which have historically influenced policy making across the globe. The work is particularly effective in tracking the progressive devaluation of value-based policy making to a point where in the present world order relating values to foreign policy appears almost an oxymoron. It is good to be reminded that there were moments in history where values did once play a role in some countries. The editors are to be commended for assembling such a wealth of expertise from across the world to give substance to their narrative.
This book throws a sharp light on a little researched theme, the role of values in the implementation of foreign policy. Politicians in all major nations face the challenge of executing policies within a framework of national principles. This important work probes the dilemma and the nature of the outcomes.
The editors of Values in Foreign Policy have compiled a set of incisive essays on the interplay of ethical aspirations and the practicalities of politics in the foreign policies of the world’s most important players. I am convinced the book would be a tremendous contribution to an unexplored field of studies and invite keen attention. This book must find a place in the literature of international studies.
Shared values define sovereignty but realistically, sovereign nations preach but rarely fully practice their values in totality. Krishnan Srinivasan's superb anthology of Values in Foreign Policy practiced by key foreign policy countries is a first in comparative analysis of an increasingly vital area of foreign policy discourse, if not dispute. Its power rests on its realpolitik, yet penetrating insights, on an unending debate between Asian and Western values; thus a must- read and invaluable compass to all interested in what lies ahead in our rapidly changing global order.
Foreign policy is often understood to be driven above all by national interests. They do, indeed, matter greatly. Less well understood, but often equally important are national values colouring foreign policy preferences, for example India's attachment to non-alignment as between the super-powers during much of the Cold War. Krishnan Srinivasan, a former Indian foreign secretary and author on international relations, is ideally suited to exploring this proposition and to bringing together others who, in this volume, shed valuable light on it.
James Mayall is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Cambridge University and fellow of the British Academy.
Sanjy Pulipaka is Senior Fellow at the Nehru Museum and Library and adviser to ICRIER, New Delhi.