The twentieth century saw the emergence of new states shaped on the classic nation-state model. How has this model been moulded and implemented? What have been the implications for minorities in these new nation-states? And how have minorities responded to nationalising processes? Following a discussion by Rogers Brubaker of his concept of nationalising state, contributions to this volume examine the dynamic relations between national minorities and nation-states established in the course of the last century, including Ukraine, Moldova, Turkey, Malaysia and Israel. This book's original theoretical framework and comparative approach offer a new understanding of the complex interactions between the formulation of a state identity and the aspirations of those who do not fit in the proclaimed core nation. In light of recent developments in ‒ notably ‒ Ukraine and Israel, this book is essential reading for all those interested in the rights and protection of national minorities and, more broadly, in the debates over the definition of the polity in a tense environment.