The costs of military ventures and concern for human rights have increased the importance of international sanctions in the twenty-first century, but our knowledge is still limited in this area. The United Nations sanctions on Libya, Al Qaeda and Rwanda, or the European Union restrictive measures on the US, Transnistria and Uzbekistan are sparsely covered by the media and attempts to measure the effectiveness of any of these sanctions comes up against the fundamental (unanswered) question: What can sanctions do and when? This book enhances our understanding of how sanctions work and explains what we can expect from their imposition. Through analysis of the sanctioning experience of the UN and EU after the Cold War, the investigation tests a comprehensive theoretical model and concludes that the context in which sanctions are imposed is crucial in deciding the type of sanctions adopted. Giumelli shakes our preconceptions on sanctions and sets the terms for more constructive debates in the future.
List of Figures and Tables vii
List of Abbreviations xi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Chapter Two: Framing the Problem: the Fallacies in the Debate of Sanctions 9
Chapter Three: A Systemic Approach to Sanctions 29
Chapter Four: The Theoretical Framework in Practice 51
Chapter Five: A Systemic Explanation for Sanctions 77
Chapter Six: The United Nations as Global Sender: The Cases of Libya,
Al-Qaida/Taliban and Rwanda 103
Chapter Seven: The European Union as a Regional Sanctioner: The Cases of
Belarus, Transnistria and Uzbekistan 123
Chapter Eight: Conclusions 143
Francesco Giumelli is Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute and Senior Lecturer in International Relations and European Studies at Metropolitan University Prague. He obtained his PhD at the University of Florence with a thesis on UN and EU Targeted Sanctions, which was shortlisted for the Jean Blondel Prize in 2009. He is the author of several studies on sanctions and he collaborates with the UN Targeted Sanction Consortium. In 2008 he was awarded a scholarship from the Compagnia di San Paolo under the European Foreign and Security Policy Studies (EFSPS) and he was a visiting fellow at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at Notre Dame University.
This is a thoughtful study of economic sanctions as instruments of statecraft together with other forms of statecraft in pursuit of a variety of foreign policy goals. To his credit, the author neither dismisses nor ignores signaling as a foreign policy device.
In his important contribution to the field of UN and EU targeted sanctions, Francesco Giumelli provides an excellent conceptual account of the challenges this strategic tool confronts in today’s world. He does so by providing both an excellent theoretical as well as methodological analysis, especially with regard to strategies of coercing, constraining and signalling. What more is that Dr. Giumelli also provides scientific recommendations for how to move the field forward. In short then, this book should be a required reading for anyone interested in the state of the art of sanctions.
Francesco Giumelli’s analytical distinction between the different purposes of sanctions – to coerce, to constrain, to signal – introduces an innovative way to think about and to evaluate the effectiveness of sanctions.